Men of All Colors Together: The Kansas City organization fighting racism amidst gay men in the 80’s–90’s

One of Kansas City’s unique identifiers is its dual-statehood in Missouri and Kansas, but this can be a major roadblock to continuity across State law. 

A recent example is the recently leaked Roe V. Wade ruling and how different laws look for abortion across state lines. Should Roe V. Wade be overturned, Missourians will be at an extreme risk of losing their rights due to a “trigger law” passed by the General Assembly in 2019. Kansans, however, do not face this risk. In fact, Kansans will have the opportunity to supersede the State’s power to make decisions on abortion in a ballot vote this coming August––securing their right to this one aspect of reproductive autonomy.

An older example of this incontinuity extends to these states’ history around anti-miscegenation laws. 

Miscegenation refers to the “interbreeding of people considered to be of different racial types” (Oxford Languages). Kansas’s laws around anti-miscegenation were repealed before achieving statehood in 1859, making it one of the earliest states to (technically) allow interracial marriages (Monahan, 1971). Missouri, however, wouldn’t be able to say the same until 1967, when the state—–along with fifteen others—–overturned laws after the success of Loving V. Virginia (Stein, 2010).

That’s an over 100 year difference between the States on one issue.

I bring up these discrepancies––and our country’s purely pitiful lawmaking––to examine just how complex these social issues can become, how little conversations have shifted across time, and to frame the importance of the group being spotlighted in this very piece.

Just 13 years after anti-miscegenation laws were overturned in Missouri, this group of Kansas Citians came together to foster support for interracial couples, specifically for gay men.

Rocky Beginnings: National Association of Black and White Men Together 

Two side-by-side photos of the, then-titled, Black and White Men Together-Kansas City (BWMT-KC) Chapter members gathering for a restaurant night at Spaghetti Factory (ca. 1980–1991). The first photo captures the group mid-meal. The second photo is of Douglas Reynolds and an unidentified member. Doug Reynolds wears a silk black shirt with gold patterned print down the right side and left pocket. 
Two side-by-side photos of the, then-titled, Black and White Men Together-Kansas City (BWMT-KC) Chapter members gathering for a restaurant night at Spaghetti Factory ([Scrapbook clippings from BWMT/MACT-KC], ca. 1980–1991).

In 1980, the National Association of Black and White Men Together (NABWMT), was founded. The Association was started by Michael J. Smith in San Francisco, California. Smith, a white man, was very vocal about racism within gay communities throughout his life. Smith used his platform as editor for the Quarterly (a periodical that duly served as NABWMT’s newsletter) to express his frustrations: releasing articles that focused on topics like media perpetuating racist stereotypes and challenging gay white men’s assertions that they couldn’t be racist. Smith’s notoriety was high––being involved with the first (openly) gay US baseball player, Glenn Burke, in the early 80’s for example––and this would help with advertising the Association’s founding (Burgin, 2013).

wo logo variations for BWMT-KC are pictured side by side. The old logo is pictured on the left: a circular badge with the chapter name on the rim and the center depicting the World War I Monument in a yin-yang overlay––a symbolic, phallic interpretation of the organization’s purpose. The new logo from 1990 is pictured on the right: two pictograms stand next to each other, their shoulders and arms forming a triangular shape. The name of the chapter is written beneath in bold, wide text.
Two logo variations for BWMT-KC are pictured side by side. The logos show a shift from a more symbolic, phallic interpretation of the organization’s purpose through depiction of the WWI monument, to a more obvious representation with the new logo ([Scrapbook clippings from BWMT/MACT-KC], 1980-1990).

Though Smith’s fight was loud, his actions were undermined by his claim to be an “interracialist”: individuals who are attracted to people of other races. Dr. John Bush, a Black Professor at the University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth and long member of NABWMT, would describe Smith’s motivations for NABWMT as easily finding Black men to have sex with: “[Smith] was totally dedicated to sex with black men. He, like many others, felt that they were especially endowed”(Burgin, 2013). This caused NABWMT to have a rocky onset. 

Smith would also provide no semblance of direction for the Association. In an interview with Thomas Beame in 1982, Smith said this about the organization: “If they want to be activist-minded, fine. If they choose to make it a fuck-club, hey, that‘s their business.” This would further charge negative perceptions for NABWMT. On the plus side, because of Smith’s poor vision, many people took matters into their own hands to become an organization that meant more than cruising.

After the creation of the parent organization in early 1980, several chapters across the nation were created in cities like New York, Milwaukee, Chicago, and Kansas City that summer. Black and White Men Together – Kansas City (BWMT-KC) kept its purpose as a social space for Black and White gay men––specifically those in or seeking relationships––but also had three other goals:

  • To develop AIDS and Safer Sex Education workshops
  • To fight racism and homophobia within the [gay] community
  • To foster a supportive environment for interracial relationships

Douglas Reynolds, one of the most prominent leaders of BWMT-KC since 1987, described interracial relationships amongst gay men as being extremely difficult to navigate at that time––especially with the added layer that gay marriage wasn’t legalized. Douglas describes his observations of what it was like to be a Black gay man in the 80’s:

“There was still a lot of racism in the white community. Publications to the advertisements––it was all geared toward white gay men. Not just on the Kansas City level, but the national level. And I would have to say, about 15 to 20 years ago, that all started changing, because we had to fight for stuff. I mean, our organization had to go in and talk to [gay clubs] and say, ‘Why did the black guys have to produce three pieces of ID and the white guys just walked on back?’”

Douglas Reynolds (D. Reynolds, personal communication, June, 20 2022)
A membership form to join the Men of All Colors Together-Kansas City. The left side collects demographic information, while the right lists fees for single and couples membership, receival of newsletters, and HIV+/PWA membership––explicitly stating fees can be waived for members who were positive.
A membership form to join the Men of All Colors Together-Kansas City (MACT-KC) chapter ([MACT-KC Brochure], ca. 1990-1999).

BWMT-KC hosted a variety of events to achieve their mission in creating safe spaces for Black and white gay men. These included Pot Lucks, Picnics, “Rap Nights” (roundtable-like discussions), Movie Nights, Restaurant Nights, and various gatherings at members’ households. Some of these outings might even be recognizable to Kansas Citians today––with the group hosting events at beloved places like Manny’s Restaurant and Peking Chinese Restaurant.

Membership for BWMT-KC operated on a fee system. To join for a full year in 1990, the fee was $20 (roughly $44.24 in 2022). The organization also had various tiers. If you wanted to join for a half-year, the fee was $10. And if you only wanted the newsletter, it was $5. 

Much of BWMT-KC’s history can be explored through their newsletters, released on a monthly or quarterly schedule. The first documented newsletter from the organization at the Gay and Lesbian Archives of Mid-America (GLAMA) was in March 1986.

BWMT-KC was also a highly collaborative organization, commonly working alongside organizations such as Gaytalk, Condom Crusaders, Good Samaritan Project, HARC (Heartland Aids Regional Council) Mart, and GALA (Gay And Lesbian Acceptance Inc.).

“If you are having problems with friends not understanding or giving you a hard time because you date outside of your race; then [BWMT] is for you.”

([MACT-KC Brochure], ca. 1990-1999)

1991 Midland Spring Regional

The first photo features a crowd of people; a Black member in the photo’s off-center locks eye and grins at the camera. The second photo is of the Regional’s name tag. The name tag is Michael Boyd’s––his first name is bolded, in the top left. The top right features the theme’s title, “Getting to Know You” in a circular text path, and the Regional’s date and location is displayed at the bottom of the tag.
Photo and name-tag from NABWMT’s 1991 Midland Spring Regional in Kansas City ([Scrapbook clippings from BWMT/MACT-KC], 1991).

As BWMT-KC increased in size, so did the reach of the organization. The newsletters from BWMT-KC shifted from being purely schedule-based to featuring reports from prominent leaders in the organization, beginning with co-chairs Douglas Reynolds and Quience Sykes. In a 1990 newsletter, Reynolds set seven new goals for the Kansas City Chapter after attending NABWMT’s convention in San Francisco. These goals included getting more involved in civic affairs, increasing AIDS awareness, and getting the BWMT-KC name out there.

The flyer is a light beige, with black text listing information about the Regional. Doug Reynolds and Quience Sykes’s names are featured on the flyer in the bottom right as contact persons.
A flyer from the 1991 Spring Regional, “Getting To Know You” ([Scrapbook clippings from BWMT/MACT-KC], 1991).

Reynolds received his wish in early 1991 when BWMT-KC was tasked with hosting the National Association’s “1991 Midland Spring Regional”: a chance for members across all midwest chapters to congregate and get to know each other. Fittingly, the theme was “Getting To Know You.”

From April 26 to 28th 1991, over seventy people attended the Regional in Kansas City. Guests were greeted with a registration and reception on the 26th, and spent the weekend attending different workshops and events. Jon Barnett, founding member of the Kansas City ACT UP (Aids Coalition to Unleash Power) Chapter, gave a speech, guests toured the Country Club Plaza, and events culminated in a night out at former gay nightclub, Edge.

While the event was a success in terms of schedule and participants, the organization suffered in terms of finances and leadership. The organization faced a roughly $300 budget deficit that Quience Sykes would have to help cover; and Douglas Reynolds stepped down as co-chair around June/July of that year. Steve Sadler, a regular member of the organization, temporarily took his place.

Rebranding as Men Of All Colors Together-Kansas City (MACT-KC)

Various branded flyers, brochures, newsletters, membership forms and more from Men of All Colors Together-KC are spread across a wooden table in front of a retro game machine. Alongside the promotional materials are some of the very scrapbooks currently residing in the Gay and Lesbian Archives of Mid-America ([Scrapbook clippings from BWMT/MACT-KC], ca. 1990-1999).
Various branded flyers, brochures, newsletters, membership forms and more from MACT-KC are spread across a wooden table in front of a retro game machine. Alongside the promotional materials are some of the very scrapbooks currently residing in the Gay and Lesbian Archives of Mid-America ([Scrapbook clippings from BWMT/MACT-KC], ca. 1990-1999).

On November 9, 1991, BWMT-KC rebranded to Men Of All Colors Together-Kansas City (MACT-KC) after a chapter vote. The change came after several members raised points of interracial relationships being beyond the breadth of solely Black and White men––a point that still seems to be missed by large media even in 2022.

Can you say ahead of their time?

Steve Sadler did not run for a co-chair position. Instead, members Yul Stell and Kurtis M. became co-chairs in 1992, and pioneered the organization’s rebrand toward greater inclusivity.

The organization changed their logo once again, unveiling it in their May/June 1992 Newsletter.

BWMT-KC April/May/June 1990 Newsletter ([Newsletters from BWMT/MACT-KC], 1990).
BWMT-KC July/August 1991 Newsletter ([Newsletters from BWMT/MACT-KC], 1991).
Men of All Colors Together-KC May/June 1994 Newsletter.
MACT-KC May/June 1994 Newsletter ([Newsletters from BWMT/MACT-KC], 1994).

MACT-KC experienced a lot of growth during the 90’s––being featured in several pieces by Kansas City news, hosting variety shows with Kansas City drag queens, and even grabbing the attention of the Cleavers at a Gay PRIDE picnic in 1991.

The organization’s growth, however, would be stunted by the loss of several members to AIDS.

Fighting The AIDS Pandemic and Racism

In a 1995 article from The Lesbian and Gay News Telegraph (written by Jon Barnett, the same founder of ACT-UP KC), members of MACT-KC spoke of the loss of around “four of five” organizers to “AIDS-related causes.”  Steve Sadler’s words from a 1995 January/February newsletter were included in the piece:

“Looking back through the past year, Men of All Colors-Kansas City has been through a lot. We’ve watched friends that we hold close leave us and move on to another plane of existence. We’ve experienced joys and sorrow. The chapter has slowly become smaller and smaller to just 23 members at the present.” (Barnett, 1995)

With each passing member, MACT-KC dedicated a page to them in their newsletter. Below are a few from GLAMA’s archives.


Quience X. Sykes

Born: Oct 26, 1964. Died: September 12, 1994.

In the photo, Quience sits in a large lawn chair, donning a dark cardigan with a white button down and tie. He flips through a magazine while smiling at the camera, his head slightly tilted. 

Dedication: The members of Men of All Colors Together - Kansas City would like to express their sorrow over the passing of Quience X. Sykes
this past Monday, September 12, 1994,
at 11:00 am.
Quience X. Sykes was born October 26, 1964 in Westpoint
Mississippi.
He moved to Kansas City in 1982 and begun his 12
years with McDonald's
Quience was an outstanding member of MACT-KC since 1987.
Quience
held the offices of Co-Chair, Social Chair, Treasurer, and
Newsletter Editor.
Quience
was instrumental in organizing the
1990 10th Anniversary, 1991 Midland Spring Regional, and many
other functions
auience attended the 1993 Nationai convention
in Chicago and Midland Regionals in Chicago, Detroit, and
Indianapolis.
Quience will be deeply missed at our MACT-KC functions as well as
his warm friendship
inour lives.
A dedication to Quience X. Sykes in MACT-KC’s 1994 November/December Newsletter. The dedication features a few paragraphs on Quience’s life and a photo of him ([Newsletters from BWMT/MACT-KC], 1994).

Quience X. Sykes joined MACT-KC in 1987, and would hold various positions including serving as Co-Chair of the organization from 1990 to 1992. Born in Westpoint, Mississippi and later moving to Kansas City in 1982, Sykes worked at McDonald’s for 12 years. Sykes had an instrumental role in planning events for the organization like their 10th anniversary and the 1991 Midland Spring Regional, and he attended NABWMT conventions in Chicago, Detroit and Indianapolis as a representative.

He was only 29 years old.

Carl Woodford

Born: July 23, 1952. Died: December 3, 1994.

The photo featured is of Carl Woodford and his partner, Steve Ricard. Carl Woodford holds his left hand on his partner’s upper stomach as both men smile at the camera. Both men wear white. 

Dedication: The members of Men of All Colors Together- Kansas City would
like to express their sorrow over the passing of Carl Woodford
this past December 3, 1994, at 7:10 pm.
Services were held at
the Newcomers Funeral Home on December 10, 1994.
Carl Woodford was born July 23, 1952.
Carl was a loval and
steady member ever since I can remember (so, that makes it before
1990).
Carl served the office
of Treasurer (a perfect match for
Carl) from 1993 to 1994.
Carl attended several National
conventions and helped out at the local level always
Carl could be counted on to give a focused and well thought out
perspective on ideas and functions.
He attended functions
regularly except for when they conflicted with a night at the
theater or a symphony.
Carl was very sincere and had an attentive ear.
He loved gossip
and usually knew everything as it happened.
Maybe that's why
Carl and Steve made such a good match.
Steve Ricard had been
Carl's significant other for over 3 years and I can't count all
the pictures of functions I have that have Carl and Steve in
them
For a while I thought MACT consisted of Carl and Steve and
no one else.
They truly were a great couple
I'll miss Carl Woodford, but I'll take comfort that he
's not
really gone.
As long as I can remember him laughing or telling
story or just seeing his face in my photo album, he '
s right here
with me.
Till we meet again, Carl
Steve Sadler
Co-Chair, MACT-Kansas City
A dedication to Carl Woodford in a MACT-KC 1995 Newsletter ([Scrapbook clippings of BWMT/MACT-KC], 1995).

Carl Woodford, similar to Sykes, had been a regular member of MACT-KC since before the 90s. Woodford served as the organization’s treasurer from 1993 to 1994, described by Steve Sadler as a “perfect match for Carl.” Woodford also attended several national conventions and offered his helping hand to several events.

Woodford was Steve Ricard’s partner for three years prior to his death. Steve Ricard was a regular member of MACT-KC, serving as co-chair of the organization from 1993 to 1994. The organization would, subsequently, go on “life-support” (as Douglas Reynolds called it) near the end of 1994 and Ricard’s term––with heavy inference that it was due to Woodford’s health and Ricard’s decline in participation in order to tend to his lover.

Yul Stell

Born: Oct. 24, 1957. Died: Feb. 8, 1999

A dedication to Yul Stell in a March/April 1999 Newsletter ([Newsletters from BWMT/ Men of All Colors Together-KC], 1999). The dedication features Yul’s name and birth year in a rectangular box, with two illustrated angels on either side of the text. 
A dedication to Yul Stell in a March/April 1999 Newsletter ([Newsletters from BWMT/MACT-KC], 1999).
Yul Stell and Kurt M., co-chairs of Men of All Colors Together-KC from 1992–1993, pictured above ([Scrapbook clippings from BWMT/MACT-KC], ca. 1992-1993). Both men stand in front of a brick wall, wearing the MACT-KC t-shirt. Yul speaks into a microphone as Kurt looks onward.
Yul Stell and Kurt M., co-chairs of MACT-KC from 1992–1993, pictured above ([Scrapbook clippings from BWMT/MACT-KC], ca. 1992-1993).

Yul Stell served as the organization’s co-chair from 1992 to 1993, pioneering the organization’s rebrand from BWMT-KC to MACT-KC. In a 1999 March/April Newsletter, it was announced an ad-hoc committee was being created to better honor deceased members in cases where family members did not accept them, implying that Stell’s family would not hold space for him even in death.


Reynolds describes how difficult it was not only just to process the sheer amount of people MACT-KC was losing to the pandemic, but also the added components of navigating members’ family dynamics, hospital visitation policies and just blatant homophobia from religious groups claiming this was “God’s divine intervention” on LGBTQ+ individuals. Though the organization went on life support following Woodford’s death, the group continued to rally around their members and offer support to one another. (D. Reynolds, personal communication, June, 20, 2022)

The Telegraph article also covered MACT-KC’s actions to hold various establishments accountable for racism. In a letter from Yul Stell to then-Dixie Belle Bar in the Summer of 1993, Stell condemns them for hanging a confederate flag within their establishment. Stell also alludes to undercover practices held by bars to prevent Black folks from entering––whether that be requiring multiple forms of identification or limiting the amount of Black people allowed inside at one time––painting the picture that bars are not so far removed from once being racially segregated. 

MACT-KC would also confront a Catholic African relief organization when they denied a donation from a MACT-organized fundraiser to support African people abroad. Members successfully used tactics like public call-outs and phone trees to get them to change their mind.

Dear Management,
First I'd like to congratulate you and your staff on the diversity of
customers you have managed to attract to your establishment. I imagine
this is do to a variety of reasons, like the friendliness of the bartenders, the
selection of the music and the unbiased attitude of the doorman to name
a few.
It has been brought to my attention by people in and outside of our
organization that you are displaying the confederate flag. Now to some
this may be considered southern tradition or a part of the southern decor.
But to many blacks this is a "cruel reminder that black people were once
considered 'human chattel' in America"
There are many other southern memorabilia that could be used to
reflect your theme. I personally enjoyed the pink flag displayed with Rita
Lane in the Gay Pride parade. Some have considered the display of the
confederate flag as a message to blacks that they are not welcome here.
(Remember it has not been that long since the days of 4 and 5 pieces of
I.D. and black quotas in the bars.) And with racism and sexism being so
prevalent in our community I could see how they could come to this
conclusion.
I hope that you would take into consideration this letter and remove
the flag from your bar.

Sincerely,
Yul Stell
Co- Chair Men of All Colors Together
A letter from Yul Stell (July 27, 1993) to then-Dixie Belle Bar condemning their displayal of a confederate flag ([Scrapbook clippings from BWMT/MACT-KC], 1993).

The end of MACT-KC

Douglas Reynolds was a prominent leader of Men of All Colors Together–KC, serving as its co-chair multiple times throughout the organization's history.([Photographs of Douglas Reynolds], ca. 1987-1995).

Reynolds sits in a foldable chair at a members’ household for an event; he crosses his arms and looks powerfully into the camera.
Douglas Reynolds was a prominent leader of MACT–KC, serving as its co-chair multiple times throughout the organization’s history.([Photographs of Douglas Reynolds], ca. 1987-1995).

Despite the organization’s successes, it was apparent that the organization never fully recovered after their battle with AIDS. MACT-KC’s membership would coast from 1995-1999, with Douglas Reynolds taking helm once again to keep things afloat. 

Doug stands in front of a tennis court, hanging Men of All Colors Together-KC banner and a rainbow Pride flag from the court’s fence while looking into the camera.
Reynolds sets up MACT-KC’s booth for a Pride event in the 90′s ([Scrapbook clippings of BWMT/MACT-KC], ca. 1987-1999).

Reynolds sent out the organization’s last newsletter in a July/August/September 1999 issue, just a year shy of their 20th anniversary. These were Reynolds’ departing words to MACT-KC:

“I have truly enjoyed the times I have been involved with MACT-KC. Over the years I have learned much about Black and White (and Gray) issues. I truly feel more educated about matters of racism and the ugly effects of prejudiceness. Through MACT-KC I feel I have learned much about myself as well as what I can do as an individual to fight the disease of racism. It starts with myself and understanding my own prejudice toward those who are different from me. Without MACT-KC, I would be years behind in my education as a person living in a multicultural society in the nineties!”

– Douglas Reynolds ([Newsletters from BWMT/MACT-KC], 1999)

Though the MACT-KC chapter is no longer active, the National Association still operates today, and is actually co-chaired by the same Douglas Reynolds mentioned throughout. Reynolds still resides in Kansas City, and is retired after over thirty years of teaching in the Kansas City, MO school district. The bulk of the Association now manifests itself through a Facebook group with over 15,000 members who, according to Reynolds, have an average age of around sixty years old. They also have a website, where they’re advertising their 2022 National Convention in Minneapolis––which Reynolds was positively giddy about. He also mentions that there are other former MACT-KC members still living in Kansas City today that he sees every so often, but aren’t necessarily involved with the Association anymore.

Reynolds smiles at the camera, sporting a Kansas City tank top and glasses. The table in front of him has a cup of coffee and NABWMT’s “40 Years Commemorative Legacy Book,” a publication Reynolds says he worked on for three years.
Douglas Reynolds sits for an interview with Kansas City Defender at HiTides Coffee on June 20th, 2022 [own photo].
The back is all black, with a gradient of white text displaying each year NABWMT has operated, as well as a rainbow trim at the very bottom of the book. In the center of the backing is a side portrait photo of two men––one Black, one white––captured by Russell Smith. “Black & White Men Together” is written in bold, white text beneath the photo.
The back of NABWMT’s “40 Years Commemorative Legacy Book,” featuring a photo from Russell Smith Photography.

Today–in all its colors

Reynolds’ advice to queer people today is simple: “Get off your ass.” Reynolds stresses that the fight for queer acceptance is not over (referencing recent legislation targeting gay and transgender people across the nation) and, that even if MACT-KC is not your organization of choice, there are plenty others fighting the good fight.

In 2022, conversations around interracial relationships are still controversial and haven’t progressed much past where MACT-KC left them in 1999. Is it okay to date a race that has historically oppressed you? How do you navigate various spaces and power dynamics with a partner who looks nothing like you? Will you ever be able to fully experience your partner’s love across racial divides?

I don’t have the answers––maybe some opinions––but despite whatever work MACT-KC was doing, MACT-KC was one of few safe spaces for Black gay men to simply exist. The organization’s scrapbooks residing at GLAMA are full of pictures of members smiling, giggling, embracing and loving one another in full vibrancy. The pictures, in fact, are very reminiscent of today’s Queer Bar Takeover and their Instagram carousels of queer folks giddy to be amongst each other.

This year’s large PRIDE weekend may be over, but for the rest of PRIDE (and the rest of this year), I challenge white LGBTQIA+ individuals to channel the energies members like Doug, Steve, Carl and Kurt had in fighting for their Black and Brown peers.

Only then can we truly signify ourselves with a rainbow. In all our colors, together.

Men of All Colors Together-Kansas City co-chairs ranging from 1987-1993 pose for a photo. From top left to top right, Kurtis M., Steve Ricard, Steve Sadler, and Quience X. Sykes all smile at the camera. At the bottom of the photo––crouching in front of Steve Sadler––is Douglas Reynolds ([Scrapbook clippings of BWMT/MACT-KC], ca. 1987-1994].
MACT-KC co-chairs ranging from 1987-1993 pose for a photo. From top left to top right, Kurtis M., Steve Ricard, Steve Sadler, and Quience X. Sykes all smile at the camera. At the bottom of the photo––crouching in front of Steve Sadler––is Douglas Reynolds ([Scrapbook clippings of BWMT/MACT-KC], ca. 1987-1994].

A very special thank you to UMKC’s Gay-Lesbian Archives of Mid-America and its Director, Stuart Hinds, for helping gather information on Men of All Colors Together-Kansas City; and serving as a cornerstone for queer Kansas City history.

Sources:

Barnett, J. D. (1995, February 9). MACT-KC: Fifteen-Year Itch. Lesbian and Gay News Telegraph, p. 7.

[MACT-KC Brochure]. (ca. 1990-1995). Gay and Lesbian Archive of Mid-America, LaBudde Special Collections, Miller Nichols Library, Kansas City, MO, United States.

Monahan, T. P. (1971). Interracial Marriage and Divorce in Kansas and the Question of Instability of Mixed Marriages. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 2(1), 107–120. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41600774

Onyejiaka, T. (2019, February 26). Why is TV so afraid to show Black people loving Black people? RaceBaitr. Retrieved June 10, 2022, from https://racebaitr.com/2019/02/26/why-is-tv-so-afraid-to-show-black-people-loving-black-people/ 

[Newsletters from BWMT/MACT-KC]. (ca. 1986-1999). MACT-KC Scrapbooks. Gay and Lesbian Archive of Mid-America, LaBudde Special Collections, Miller Nichols Library, Kansas City, MO, United States.

[Photographs of Douglas Reynolds]. (ca. 1990-1995). MACT-KC Scrapbooks. Gay and Lesbian Archive of Mid-America, LaBudde Special Collections, Miller Nichols Library, Kansas City, MO, United States.

[Scrapbook clippings of BWMT/MACT-KC]. (ca. 1980-1999). Gay and Lesbian Archive of Mid-America, LaBudde Special Collections, Miller Nichols Library, Kansas City, MO, United States.

Stein, L. (2015, March 18). Commentary: How marriage became a federal issue. St. Louis Public Radio. Retrieved June 10, 2022, from https://news.stlpublicradio.org/politics-issues/2010-08-15/commentary-how-marriage-became-a-federal-issue

Williams, A. R. (2018, December 10). Jon D. Barnett. Profiles in Kansas City Activism. Retrieved June 10, 2022, from https://info.umkc.edu/kcactivism/?page_id=40

Photo from Men of All Colors Together-KC’s Halloween Party. On the right-hand side of the photo is Quience X. Sykes and Steve Ricard––both men admiring a white towel with MACT-KC’s logo printed over it ([Scrapbook Clippings of BWMT/MACT-KC], ca. 1990-1993)].
Photo from MACT-KC’s Halloween Party. On the right-hand side of the photo is Quience X. Sykes and Steve Ricard––both men admiring a white towel with MACT-KC’s logo printed over it ([Scrapbook Clippings of BWMT/MACT-KC], ca. 1990-1993)].

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